太阳2

浅谈中国古建筑-窗的发展与演变
编辑:太阳2     发布时间:2021-3-25

  窗的起源,要追溯到原始社会,在当时,供出入的洞口只有一个,那就是门洞,作为建筑中独立的窗洞还未产生。杭州设计公司表示因此,可视原始唯一的洞口形式为门洞与窗洞的合一形态,采光通风都靠这一个洞口实现。

  SUIZHEJIANZHUHERENLEIWENMINGDEFAZHAN,CHUANGZHUJIANYUMENFASHENGLEGONGNENGHEXINGSHISHANGDEFENHUA,KAISHIYIDULIDEXINGSHICHUXIAN。ZAIYUANSHIJIANZHUZHONG,RENLEIXUEHUISHIYONGHUOZHIHOU,JUYOU“CHUANG”HANYIDEDONGKOUXIANSHIYOUTONGFENGPAIYANDEXUQIUCHANSHENGDE。ZAIYUANSHIXUEJUZHUSUOZHONGYANGDOUYOUYIYONGYUQUNUAN、ZHAOMINGHEQUSHIDE“HUOTANG”,ZAIZHANGQISHENGHUOZHONG,YUANSHIRENFAXIANYANSHIXIANGSHANGFANGPIAOSANHOU,WEILERANGHUOTANGCHUDEYANNENGGOUSHUNLIPAICHUQU,WANGWANGZAIQIJUSUODESHANGBUDAKAIYIGEXIAOKOU,JIUZHEIYANG,DULIDEYUANSHICHUANGDONGBIANCHANSHENGLE,ZHEIJIUSHIZUIZAODECHUANG——TIANCHUANG,JISHI“CONG”。

  TIANCHUANGSUINENGJIEJUESHINEIKONGJIANDECAIGUANGTONGFENGHEPAIYANDEJIBENYAOQIU,QUENANYIDIDANGYUXUEDEQINXI。YUSHIRENMENDEXIAONAODAIGUAYOUKAIDONGLE,WEILEZHUIQIUGENGSHUSHIDESHENGHUO,KAISHIBATIANCHUANGDEWEIZHIWANGXIAYI,ZAIJIANZHUDECEMIANKAIKONGDONG,ZHEICHENGZHIWEI“YOU”,JIJIEJUELEYUXUEDEKUNRAO,YOUJIANJUTONGFENG、CAIGUANG、PAIYANDEGONGNENG。

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▲BANPOYIZHI——YOU

  DANYUANSHIDECHUANGHENJIANDAN,MEIYOUSHENMEFUZADEZHUANGSHI,SUIZHESHENGCHANSHENGHUODEXUYAO,DANGDONGKOUDECHIDUKAIDEJIAODASHI,JIUYONGMUBANGHENGCHENGZAIDONGKOUZUOZHELAN,MINGWEI“JIAOCHUANG”,ZHEIXIEMUBANGWOMENKEYIKANZUOSHICHUANGLINGDEYUANXING。

  XIZHOUZAOQI,YOULIANGZUNQINGTONGQI:SHOUZUFANGLIHEYUEXINGNULISHOUMENLI,TAMENZHENGMIANZHONGXIABUJIEZHUZAOSHUANGSHANBANMEN,BINGZAIQIYUSANMIANDIAOKESHIZILINGGECHUANG。ZHEISHIWOGUOYIZHIGUDAICHUANGXINGXIANGSHIWUZHONGZUIZAODEQINGTONGQI,YEZUYISHUOMINGZHIZUOGONGYIDEFAZHAN,CHUANGYOUYUANSHICHUANGDONGFAZHANDAOYOUSHIZILINGGEDECHUANG。

  QINHANSHIQI,MENJIESHIMUBANMEN,CAIGUANGZHUYAOKAOCHUANG,BINGQIECHUANGWEIGUDINGSHAN,BUKEKAIQI。CISHICHUANGKUANGNEIYOUMUZHILINGGE,ZHUYAOSHIWEILEGUDINGZHEDANGJICAIGUANGSUOYONGDESHABUCAILIAO,XINGSHIJIANDAN、CUZHUANG,LINGGETUANYOUZHILING、HENGWOLING、XIELINGGEDENG。CHUANGYOULINGTIAOCHUANG、BAIYECHUANG、LINGGECHUANG、ZHICHUANG、HENGPIDENG,QIZHONGYIZHILINGCHUANGHELINGGECHUANGWEIDUOJIAN。CHUANGDONGXINGSHIZAICHANGGUIQINGKUANGXIADOUCAIYONGJUXINGHUOFANGXING,SANJIAOXINGHEYUANXINGYEYOUCHUXIAN,CONGGUANGZHOUCHUTUDEHANDAI“LOUGESHI”TAOWUZHONGJIUKEJIANSANJIAOXINGHENGPICHUANGHEKAIZAICEQIANGSHANGDEFUHEJIHETUXINGDECHUANGYANGSHI,POWEIDUTEXINYING。

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▲HANDAICHUANGYANGSHI

  WEIJINNANBEICHAOSHIQI,ZHILINGCHUANGYANGSHIJIAOPUBIAN,CHUANGDEXINGXIANGYOUCHUANGKUANGSIJIAOXIANGWAIZUOFANGSHEZHUANGDETEYIXINGSHI,CHUANGKUANGNEIWEICUZHUANGDEZHILINGTIAO。

  SUITANGWUDAI,CHUANGHUYIZHILINGCHUANGYUSHANDIANCHUANGWEIZHU,ZHILINGCHUANGZHONGYOUFENWEIPOZILING、BANLINGLIANGZHONG。POZILINGCHUANGLINGTIAOSHIYONGZHENGFANGXINGLINGTIAODUIJIAOJUKAIERXINGCHENGLIANGTIAODUANMIANWEIZHIJIAOSANJIAOXINGDELINGTIAO,JIANTOUCHAOWAI,PINGMIANCHAONEI,BIANYUHUZHI。XIANCUNTANGDAIDEWUTAIFOGUANGSIDADIANDECHUANGJIUWEIPOZILINGCHUANG。

  SONGDAISHIWOGUOMUGOUJIANZHUCHENGSHUDESHIQI,ZISONGCHAOZHIHOU,MINJUZHONGCHUANGSHANZHUJIANFAZHANWEIKECHAIXIE、KAIQIDEHUODONGCHUANG。LIUFENGCENGZONGJIECHU:“TANGDAIYIQIANYIGUDINGDEZHILINGCHUANGWEIZHU,ZISONGYIHOUKEKAIQIDECHUANGZHUJIANCHENGWEIZHULIUXINGSHI。”《YINGZAOFASHI》DIYICIWANZHENGDEJILULEXIAOMUZUOZHIZUOJISHUYIJIGONGXIAN,QIZHONGJILUDEKEKAIQIDELANJIANGOUCHUANGCHENGWEIHOUDAIGEZHONGCHUANGYANGSHIFAZHANDEBIAOGAN,CILISHISHIDUANZHONGCHUANGLINGTUANYEDEDAOFEISUFAZHAN,RUJINGZIGE、GUQIANWEN、WANZIWEN、GUIBEIWENDENG。SONGDAICHUANGDEGONGNENGCONGMANZUJIBENDETONGFENGCAIGUANG,FAZHANWEIYICHUANGGUANJINGDEZUOYONG,ZAIFAZHANWEIJIANZHUZHONGZHONGDIANZHUANGSHIDEBUWEI,TONGSHICHENGDANQISHENMEIJIAOHUADEZUOYONG。

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  MINGQINGSHIQIDECHUANGZHONGLEIFANDUO,TUANBIANHUAYEDADAOBAIHUAQIFANGDEZHUANGTAI,JIANCHUANGHEZHIZHAICHUANGZAIZHEIYISHIQIBEIGUANGFANSHIYONG,QIENANBEIFANGCHUANGXINGSHICHAYIJIAODA。《QINGSHIYINGZAOZELI》ZHONGDUICHUANGGEBUJIANDEYINGZAOYOUMINGQUEDEDENGJIGUIFAN,ZHUANGSHIFENGGEZHIJIEFANYINGJIANZHUDEDENGJIHEZHURENDESHENFENDIWEI。

  MINJUZHONGDECHUANGKEJIZHONGFANYINGQIJIANZHUJIWENHUADETEZHENG,JINGENLISHIZHANGHEDEBIANQIAN,CHUANGYESUIZHIBIANHUAFAZHAN。CONGZHONGKEMINGQUEDEDAOCHUANGXINGZHIBIANHUADECHAYIYIJICHUANGZHIZUOJIYIWENBUSHANGSHENGDEGUIJI,YIJIRENMENZAIMENCHUANGZHISHANGSUOJITUODEQIANGLIEJINGSHENXUQIU。


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