太阳2

建筑施工生产过程中的现场安全如何管理?
编辑:太阳2     发布时间:2020-9-15

  在我国的现代化建设中,土木工程业越来越成为国民经济发展的支柱产业。同时,随着社会和科技的发展,建筑物的规模、功能、造型和相应的建筑技术越来越大型化、复杂化和多样化。太阳2表示所采用的新材料、新设备、新的结构技术和施工技术日新月异,节能技术、信息控制技术、生态技术等日益与建筑相结合。建筑业和建筑物本身正在成为许多新技术的复合载体。建国60年来,我国的土木工程建设取得了巨大成就,特别是近年来的发展极为迅猛。新的高楼大厦、展览中心、铁路、公路、桥梁、港口航道及大型水利工程在祖国各地如雨后春笋般涌现,新结构、新材料、新技术在大力研究、开发和应用中。发展之快,数量之巨,令世界各国惊叹。高层建筑不仅越建越多,越建越高,而且其结构体系及布置形式也日趋多样化。框架结构、剪力墙结构、框架-剪力墙结构、框架-筒体结构等体系,巨型结构、转换层结构、悬挑结构及高层大跨框架结构等体系是目前常见的结构体系。随着计算机应用的普及和结构计算理论的日益完善,计算结果将更能反映实际情况,从而能更充分地发挥材料的性能并保证结构的安全。人们将设计出更为优化的方案进行土木工程建设,以保证工程质量、缩短建设工期、提高经济效益。工程环境问题特别是气候变异的影响将越来越受到重视,城市综合症、海水上升、水污染、沙漠化等问题与人类的生存发展密切相关,而又无不与土木工程有关。较大工程建成后对环境的影响乃至建设过程中的振动、噪声等,都将成为土木工程师必须考虑的问题。从一个施工单位的角度来看,在实际施工中面临的最直接的问题,一是施工生产过程中的现场安全管理问题;二是施工方与业主以及监理部门的关系问题;三是施工过程中的环境公害问题等,这些都是需要认真对待和合理解决的现实问题。

  1、施工生产过程中的现场安全管理问题

  SHIGONGXIANCHANGANQUANGUANLIZHUYAOBAOKUOCHANGDISHESHI、XINGWEIDEANQUANGUANLIHEANQUANJISHUGUANLILIANGGEFANGMIAN,ZHUYAODUISHIGONGZHONGRENDEXINGWEI、WU、HUANJINGZHUANGTAIYIJUJINGYANLAIGUANLIHEKONGZHI。QIZHONGCHANGDISHESHI、XINGWEIANQUANGUANLIDAIYOUYIDINGDEPUBIANXING,ZHUYAOSHIDUIXIANCHANGSHEBEI、GONGRENDEYIBANANQUANJINXINGGUANLI,LIRUCHANGDISHIFOUZHENGJIE、SHIFOUYOUZHUANRENDINGSHIJINXINGQINGLI,SHEBEIDECAOZUOZHIHUISHIFOUZHENGQUE、ANQUAN,JINRUGONGDIDEGONGRENSHIFOUDAIANQUANMAO、GAOCHUZUOYEDEANQUANZHUANGZHISHIFOUQIQUANDENG。ANQUANJISHUGUANLISHIWEILEBAOZHENGGONGCHENGXIANGMUDESHIGONGANQUAN,YIJUMEIGEGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEBUTONGTEDIANSUOZHIDINGDEANQUANJISHUCUOSHI,CONGJISHUSHANGBAOZHENGSHIGONGDEANQUANXING。XIANZAIJIANZHUGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEJIEGOUXINGSHIBIANHUADUOYANG,SHIGONGFANGFAYEYUELAIYUEFUZA,BUTONGDESHIGONGFANGFASUODUIYINGDEANQUANJISHUCUOSHIYOUYIDINGDEBUTONG。ZHENDUIMUQIANSHIGONGXIANCHANGDEANQUANZHUANGKUANG,SHOUXIANYINGGAICONGYINGJIANSHANGZHESHOU。ZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

  (1)SHIGONGSHEBEI、GONGJUJIQIJUANQUANZHUANGZHIDESHEJIYUZHIZAO。YISHIYAODALIFAZHANYUGAIJINSHIGONGJIXIE,BAOZHENGSHIGONGJIXIEDEGEXIANGANQUANXINGNENG;ERSHIZHUANYONGSHIGONGGONGJU、QIJUJUNYINGDAIYOUANQUANBAOXIANZHUANGZHI,BINGQIESHIYONGFANGBIAN。LIRUHUNNINGTUQIANGZHISHIJIAOBANJIYINGDANGSHEJIWEIQUANFENGBISHI,DONGLIKAIGUANYUKAIGAIXITONGXINGCHENGLIANSUO,KAIGAISHIBUNENGJIAOBAN,JIAOBANSHIBUDEKAIGAI;ZAIRUDIAOYUNHUNNINGTUHUOSHAJIANGDENGCAILIAOSUOYONGDEDIAODOU,DIAOYUNMOBAN、BANCHENGPINGOUJIANSHIDEDIAOGOU,DIAOJUJUNYINGDAIYOUANQUANBAOXIANZHUANGZHIDENGDENG。

  (2)JIAOSHOUJIADEANQUAN。JIAOSHOUJIADEGANJIANBIXUANZHAOSHIGONGJISHUGUIFANDEGUIDINGLAISHIYONG,JINLIANGSHIYONGBIAOZHUNHUA、ZHENGGUIHUADECHANPIN。CHULEKAOLVJINGJIYINSUYIWAI,YINGGENGDUODICONGANQUANDEJIAODUKAOLV,ZAICAIZHIHEWAIXINGSHANGYOUSUOTUPO。LIRUDUIJIAOSHOUJIAKOUJIANHEJIAOSHOUBANDEGUDING,KEJIAZHUANGZISUO、BAOXIANXIAOHUOANQUANKOUDENGZHUANGZHI。

  (3)GERENFANGHUYONGPINDEANQUANSHEJI。NENGFOUZHIZAOYIZHONGJIANQUANYOUYIDONGFANGBIANDEANQUANDAI,HUOSHISHENGZIYUANQUANDAIJIEHESHIYONG,JIANQUANYOUYOUYIDINGDEGONGZUOKONGJIAN,SHIYONGFANGBIAN。

  (4)SHIGONGXIANCHANGZUIJIBENDEANQUANGUANLISHESHI。GONGDIZUOYEQU、GAOKONGZUOYEYINGCAIQUWEIDANG、ANQUANWANGQUANFENGBI;SUOYOUJINRUGONGDIDERENYUANBIXUDAIANQUANMAO;DINGQIDUISHIGONGXIANCHANGJINXINGQINGLI,BAOZHENGGONGDIZHENGJIE、DAOLUCHANGTONG;DUIZUOYEQUJINXINGDIANZIJIANKONG,CONGGENBENSHANGBAOZHENGSHIGONGANQUAN。

建筑施工生产过程中的现场安全如何管理?

   2、施工单位与业主以及监理部门的关系问题

  SHIGONGDANWEIYUYEZHUZHIJIANMUQIANYEMIANLINZHEXUDUOWENTI。MUQIANXUDUOYEZHUSHIGONGSIZHIHUOXIANGMUJINGLIZHI,ZAIKEGUANSHANGMIANLINDEWENTI,YISHIZAIYEZHUDEGUANLITIZHIFANGMIAN,RUCAIQUAN、RENSHIQUANSHANGDEZEQUANBUQINGERZAOCHENGDUOTOUGUANLI,SHIDEGUANLIXIAOLVJIAODI;ERSHIZAIJISHUYUJINGJIFANGMIAN,YEZHUDEZHUANYEJISHURENYUANRENSHUBUZUHUOSHUIPINGBUGOU;SANSHIBUFENYEZHUDEGONGQIYAOQIUDAIYOUYIDINGDEMANGMUXING、BUKEXUE,RUREZHONGYUXIANGMOUJIERIXIANLIDENG,ZAOCHENGZHILIANGBUDABIAOHUOZAOJIABUHELI。ZAIZHUGUANFANGMIAN,MUQIANWOGUOYIBANDETUMUGONGCHENGJIANZHUQIYEGUANLIBORUO,WANGWANGZHIZHONGSHIRENWUKAITUO,ERQINGSHIRENYUANYEWUPEIXUN。YISHIJIANZHUQIYEXUANZEDELAOWUDUI(FENBAODUI)DADUOMEIYOUZIZHI,YOUDEJISHIYOUZIZHIYESHIGUAKAOXINGZHI,ZHILIANGYISHIBUQIANG。HENDUOSHENGCHANGONGRENWENHUASHUIPINGDI,DADUOWEIJINGGUOZHENGGUIXUNLIAN,QIEGENGHUANPINFAN,GONGZUOSUIYIXINGDA,JIGONGCHENGZHILIANGGUANLIDAILAIHENDADENANDU。ERQIESHOULIYIDEQUSHI,LAOWUDUI(FENBAODUI)TOUGONGJIANLIAO、NONGXUZUOJIADEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。ERSHIJIANZHUQIYEPUBIANYOUZHUANBAOXIANXIANG,YOUQISHIJIJIANRENWUJIAODUOSHI,YOUXIEQIYEJIUZHICHENGLANGONGCHENGGAOZHUANBAOTIGUANLIFEI。SUIRANLAOWUFENBAOSHIYUNXUDE,DANGUANJIANSHIBUNENGYIBAODAIGUAN,BUNENGBUKAOLVFENBAODUIWUGONGRENDEJISHUSHUIPING。SHIGONGDUIWANGWANGSHIYILIUDEBIAOSHU、ERLIUDEGUANLI、SANLIUDEJISHU,ZHONGBIAOHOUDUIZHUYAOFUZERENRUXIANGMUJINGLIYIJIJISHUFUZERENDIAOHUANPINFANHUOBUDAOGANGJIAODUO。ZAIJIANLIGONGZUOFANGMIAN,YISHIJIANLIZHUDIBANDETIZHIJIANSHEBUWANSHAN,RUZHUANBAO、GERENCHENGBAO、RENYUANLIUDONGPINFANDENGXIANXIANG;ERSHIJIANLIDEDINGWEIBUMINGQUE,WANGWANGSHIJIANLIYUCHENGBAORENDEGUANXIBIYUYEZHUDEGUANXIGENGWEIMIQIE,DUIYEZHUBUFUZEREN,CONGERZAOCHENGGONGCHENGZHILIANGDIXIAYUTOUZIDEZENGJIADENG;SANSHIBUFENJIANLIRENYUANSUZHIBUGAOHUOYEWUBUQUANMIAN,HENNANFUQIJISHU、JINGJIDENGQUANBUZEREN。JISHIYOUXIEJIANLIRENYUANJISHUGUOYING,BENKEYIDANFUQIZHILIANGGUANLIJIANDUDEZHIZE,DANYOUYUQIZERENXINBUQIANG,MEIYOURENZHENLVXINGJIANDU、QUANGUOCHENGJIANKONGDEZHINENG,SHIDEYIXIEBUFACHENGBAORENJIFENBAODUIYOULEKECHENGZHIJI。SHENZHIYOUGEBIEDEJIANLIRENYUANSHOUGERENSILIDEQUDONG,YUBUFACHENGBAORENHUOFENBAODUITONGLIUHEWU,ZHISHIGONGCHENGXIANGMUFASHENGLEYIXIEBENBUGAIFASHENGDEZHILIANGWENTI。YEZHU、JIANLIDANWEI、SHIGONGQIYESANZHEJISHIZEQUANFENMINGDEDANTI,YOUSHIXIANGHUZHIYUEDEDULITI,GENGSHIGONGTONGDANFUJIANZHUGONGCHENGXIANGMURENWUDEHEZUOTI。ZAITUMUGONGCHENGGUANLITIXIZHONG,YEZHU、XIANGMUJINGLISHIHEXINGUANLIYAOSU,DANFUZHETONGLINGZHENGGETIXIYUNZUODEZEREN。YINCI,ZHIYOUNINGJUGEGUANLIYAOSUXINGCHENGYIGEYOUJIDEZHENGTI,CUSHIGEFANGXIEDIAOYIZHI,RANGGEYAOSUDEGUANLIZHEXIANGSHI、ZUOSHI,NULIBAXIANGMUDESHIQINGBANHAO,CAINENGSHIXIANYEZHUDEXIANGMUGUANLIMUBIAO。

  3、施工过程中的环境公害问题

  SUIZHERENMINSHENGHUOTIAOJIANDEGAISHAN,RENMENDUISHENGHUOHUANJINGDEYAOQIUYEZAIZHUBUTIGAO,TUMUGONGCHENGXIANGMUSHIGONGDUICHENGSHISUOZAOCHENGDEHUANJINGGONGHAIYEZHUJIANBAOLUCHULAI。ZHENGRUQITADEGONGYESHENGCHANYIYANG,TUMUGONGCHENGSHIGONGYEJICHENGSHIDAILAILERIYIYANZHONGDEHUANJINGWENTI,ZHURUFENCHEN、YOUHAIQITI、ZAOSHENG、QIANGGUANG、GUTIHEYETIFEIQIWU、ZALUANDESHIGONGXIANCHANG、GAOKONGZHUILUOWU、DIZHENYIJIQITAOURANSHIGUDENG,DOUBUTONGCHENGDUDIDUICHENGSHIJUMINZAISHENGLISHANGHEXINLISHANGZAOCHENGLESHANGHAI。CONGWOGUOXIANXINGDEYOUGUANHUANJINGBAOHUDEFALVFAGUILAIKAN,JUNDUICHENGSHIZHONGDETUMUGONGCHENGSHIGONGDEGONGHAIWENTIYOUBUTONGCHENGDUDESHEJI。ZHEIXIEFALVFAGUIZHUYAOYOU:《HAIYANGHUANJINGBAOHUFA》(1982NIAN)、《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFA》(1984NIAN)、《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFASHISHIXIZE》(1989NIAN)、《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFA》(1987NIAN)、《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFASHISHIXIZE》(1991NIAN)、《ZAOSHENGWURANFANGZHITIAOLI》(1989NIAN)、《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》(1989NIAN)HE《JIANZHUFA》(1998NIAN)DENG。DUIYUCHENGSHITUMUGONGCHENGJIANSHEDECHENGBAOSHANGLAIJIANG,ZUNSHOUZHEIXIEFALVFAGUISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE。


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